Top Presidential Historian says Ted Cruz not eligible to be president

January 14, 2016

Could Ted Cruz, born December 22, 1970 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, be Constitutionally ineligible for the presidency?  If he were alive today, one of America’s most distinguished presidential historians, J.J. Perling, would say yes.  We know that because he made that very judgement about another very distinguished American who was in the pipeline for the White House.  He made it in the book, The Presidents’ Sons: The Prestige of Name in a Democracy, published in 1947 by The Odyssey Press, New York. (p. 30)

Now, before we get started with this extraordinary tale – and it is an extraordinary tale – let me offer a few disclaimers. I served for several months last year as a Senior Adviser to Senator Rand Paul. I have great admiration for Senator Ted Cruz and I am writing this story only as a student of history. It has been my pleasure to personally interview six presidents and first ladies. I have been a personal adviser to two American presidents.  It has been my pleasure to have been in the homes of several of them before, during and after their presidency.  And my wife and I have hosted presidents in our own home on three occasions.  I coauthored a book with a president and have written about all of the presidents and all of their parents and all of their children.  I can tell you that the issue of who is and who is not a “natural born citizen” is not as easily resolved as it may seem.

Yes, we know that Senator John McCain was born in the Panama Canal zone. His father was serving in the U.S. military. And yet he ran for president.  And we know that Ted Cruz,like McCain, was born to a mother who was an American citizen and that McCain’s father was also an American citizen. The father of Ted Cruz was Cuban. But there the comparison ends.  In 2008, with the McCain issue relevant, both Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton co-sponsored a Senate bill to assure McCain’s eligibility. The resolution declared, “John Sidney McCain, III, is a ‘natural born Citizen’ under Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution of the United States.”

Currently, Senator Cruz has no such congressional protection. And worse, he has built a rogue reputation by thumbing his nose at the Senate establishment of his own political party.

Now, here is the tale.  It is just one example from history, the story of another, would be president, who was disqualified over the so called “birther issue.” You can read the story in its full detail in my book All the Presidents’ Children.

He was born on the 4th of July.  He graduated from Harvard University and studied law under Daniel Webster. His name was George Washington Adams.  Both his father and grandfather were presidents of the United States.  Yet, according to the belief of legal experts at the time he could never be president himself.  Why?  He was born in Berlin, Germany while his father served in the American diplomatic corps as the U.S. Minister to Prussia.

Keep in mind, both his mother and father were U.S. citizens.  His father would soon become Ambassador to the Court of St. James.  He would become Secretary of State and not just any Secretary of State, but the one who would craft and conceive of what became known as the Monroe Doctrine, the most enduring foreign policy position in American history.  He would later become the sixth president of the United States and his mother, Louisa Catherine Adams, would become one of our greatest First Ladies.

John Quincy Adams ruled his son’s life from a distance, sending letters ordering every moment of the day.

Louisa, the mother, took great solace in the fact that her firstborn, George, would not have the pressure of presidential expectations.  He couldn’t.  Their correspondence reveals their belief that the Constitution did  not allow him to be president because of his birth in Germany. Nevertheless, the pressure to do something extraordinary with his life took its toll.  At age 28 he jumped or fell from a steamboat en-route to a meeting with his father at the White House in Washington, D.C.  Most historians believe it to have been a suicide.  He was in the midst of a tawdry scandal that involved blackmail and possible shame for the family name.  And his meetings with his father were always tense, calamitous affairs.

A few years later the second son would die young. Louisa would send her husband a sad rebuke, “another child offered on the altar of politics.”

Writes J.J. Perling, “George Washington Adams could never have been an occupant of the Presidential chair: the Constitution of the United States restricted that office to native born citizens, and George Washington Adams had been born in Germany.” (p.30) And that was published in 1947.

Start reading All the Presidents’ Children now on kindle.


Almost Presidents: Sons of presidents who almost won the White House themselves

September 26, 2012

Eight men who might have been president.

Everybody knows that there were two sons of presidents who became president themselves.  John Quincy Adams, son of our second president, John Adams, was elected the sixth president of the United States.  And George W. Bush, who was the son of  George Herbert Walker Bush, was elected the 43rd president.  But there were many others who thought about it and eight who either declared or were promoted for the position or were highly expected to run.

1.) Charles Francis Adams

Charles Francis Adams was the son and grandson of presidents and might have become one himself.  He was fluent in several languages, graduated from Harvard at age seventeen and was elected to the House of Representatives.    As Ambassador to the Court of St. James during the American Civil War he is credited with many for keeping England from supporting the Confederacy.

2.) John Van Buren

Many said he was a better lawyer, businessman and politician than his father.  But when “Prince John” as he was called, was elected to the House of Representatives he kept fighting his fathers old battles.
(Please see Bill McKern’s comments below. He has documentation showing that this congressman, with the same name as the president’s son, was not, in fact that John Van Buren. It is a convincing argument and shows many books and articles – including this one –  to be wrong.)

3.) Robert Todd Lincoln

After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, his eldest son, Robert Todd Lincoln rose to prominence in America.  After graduating from law school, every major corporation looked to his services and many offered him positions on their board of directors.   Within decades he became one of the richest men in America and was a cabinet officer and an ambassador.  Heads of State who visited America, often stopped to call on Mr. Lincoln as well.  But many were concerned that his political rise was unhealthy.   At one point, no less than Joseph Pulitzer, himself, railed against the possible presidency of Mr. Lincoln “simply because he is the son of a president.”

4.) Jesse Grant

Jesse Grant, son of President Ulysses S. Grant, joined his mom and dad on their famous round the world trip during their retirement years.  Jesse fell in love with the lavish lifestyle foreign potentates showered on the son of a former head of state and succumbed to their flattery.  Failing to understand how American elections worked, and living in cultures where power rested in a few families, many foreign leaders anticipated that Jesse Grant, himself, would one day be an American president.  It all apparently went to Jesse’s head.  He eventually returned to America and announced he was running for president but the press and the public largely ignored him and his campaign fizzled.

5.) Theodore Roosevelt , Jr.

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. was on the fast track to the presidency.  His father had been appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy on his way to the White House, and so had his cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt.  So when TR, Jr. received the same appointment many expected the pattern to be repeated.  But fate did not comply.  Ted served as governor of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.  He was a hero in World War II but recent disclosures show a jealous FDR restricted his press coverage.  TR, Jr. was the only General to land with his own troops on the first wave, on the first day of the Normandy D Day invasion during World War Two.  He died shortly afterward and was awarded the Medal of Honor in absentia.

6.) Robert Taft

Senator Robert Taft, son of President William Howard Taft, is considered by many to have been one of the top five greatest lawmakers in American history.  He ran for president three times and very nearly won the Republican nomination in 1952.

7.) John Eisenhower

John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower, son of President Dwight Eisenhower,  is one of America’s greatest military historians.  He served as U. S. ambassador to Belgium in the Nixon administration. In the 1960’s, the Democratic National Committee commissioned a private poll which showed John Eisenhower as their most formidable Republican opponent for president, beating out both Barry Goldwater and Nelson Rockefeller but Eisenhower was not tempted.  He is in retirement and is the oldest living child of a president.

8.) John F. Kennedy, Jr.

Many observers believed that JFK, Jr., son of John F. Kennedy, had the best chance to retrace his father’s steps and win back the White House for a Kennedy family member.  Kennedy never traded on those expectations and wisely kept his own counsel about any political ambitions.  His sister made a brief appearance in public life, jockeying for appointment to the Senate.  It did not go well.  JFK, Jr. died in a plane crash in 1999.  He was 38 years old.
Caroline Kennedy’s public moment

Caroline Kennedy in the Senate? An historic perspective

December 7, 2008


I am getting a ton of calls from journalists wanting some historical context for Caroline Kennedy’s likely appointment to the U. S. Senate.   Even one of the presidential historian – talking heads has checked in, asking for example, if there have been other children of presidents who have served in the Senate.  “Just Adams and Taft, right?” one famous historian wanted to know.  Gotta make sure before going onto TV to tell the world.

Yep, just Adams and Taft.  Caroline Kennedy would make three.  Although there have been eight who served in the House of Representatives, four in the cabinet, five ambassadors and two governors, both Bushes.

Of course, Kennedy is not in yet.  Presumably she would be appointed to finish the term of Hillary Clinton, whom President Elect Obama is going to make his Secretary of State.  A lot of history there.  Clinton will be the first former first lady to serve in the cabinet, although Eleanor Roosevelt was Ambassador to the United Nations and Edith Galt Wilson practically ran the whole country for her incapacitated husband.


U. S. Senators who were children of presidents

1.) John Quincy Adams was the first son born to an American president.  Born in 1767 to John and Abigail Adams, he was a bit of a child prodigy, who accompanied his father on foreign trips and was serving at the ambassadorial level for the new United Sates in his twenties. He served as a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts from 1803 – 1808.  He would later be an ambassador again, secretary of state, and president before returning to the House of Representatives in his later years.

2.) Robert Taft, son of the 27th president, William Howard Taft, served as a Senator from Ohio from 1939 – 1953.  He ran for president three times, and for awhile, was considered a front runner in the 1952 election.  Although a Republican, Taft was named one of the five greatest senators of all time by a committee chaired by Caroline Kennedy’s own father, then Senator John F. Kennedy.

Referred to as “Mr. Republican,” Bob Taft was the father of the modern conservative movement.

If Caroline Kennedy becomes the third presidents’ kid to serve in the U. S. Senate, there were three others who tried and failed, two of them ran for the elusive California seat.


The other candidates for the U. S. Senate who were children of presidents

1.) U. S. “Buck” Grant, Jr. was at the heart of a major scandal, talking his father, the former president, into joining the ill fated Grant and Ward brokerage firm.  Some concluded that the only thing that saved the young Grant from prison was the conclusion that he was more incompetent than culpable.  Years later, when he tried for a comeback by entering into the race for the U. S. Senate from California, the old charges resurfaced along with new ones, including bribery.  The new charges were eventually proven to be false, the product of “dirty politics.”  But the race was lost.

2.) Maureen Reagan ran for the Senate from California in 1982.  Her own father, who was then president, refused to break his pledge of remaining neutral in primary battles and wouldn’t endorse her.  Maureen lost.  She tried again for the House of Representatives and lost.  But Maureen is the only child of a president to serve as the Chairman of a major political party.  During her father’s second term, and in spite of White House aides trying to shoot down the idea, thinking that her public persona was only a reminder to the masses that Reagan had been married and divorced, she was elected the Republican National Co-Chairman.

3.) John William “Jack” Carter, a millionaire investment consultant, and eldest son of President Jimmy Carter, ran for the Senate from Nevada in 2006.  Carter won the primary and might have pulled off an upset against a well heeled opponent but Carter became gravely ill in the last months of the campaign and was hospitalized.  Most say he has a political future if he wants it.

The attacks on Bristol Palin

September 8, 2008

 Presidential Campaigns: When the children become the issue.

The media’s cruel attacks on Bristol Palin, the seventeen year old daughter of vice presidential nominee, Governor Sarah Palin, are nothing new.   The young Palin is single and apparently pregnant and some in the media are self righteously, outraged.  After all, isn’t Governor Palin an evangelical Christian?  As sordid as this whole episode may sound, it has all happened before.

Gerald Ford’s children were targeted for using marijuana and Ronald Reagan’s son, Michael, was wrongly accused of shop lifting.  Chelsea Clinton was lampooned by television comics as “ugly,” an experience that the now gorgeous Chelsea has lived to laugh about but it was no laughing matter for a vulnerable, adolescent girl.  The Bush twins were chastised for underage drinking.

During the height of the Clinton years, a major network assigned a crew to the “Chelsea Clinton Virginity Watch.”  They learned that she had a boyfriend and thought that is was all big news, especially in light of the ongoing story of her father.  Thankfully, the network bosses came to their senses and the story was scrapped.  One of the producers learned that I was writing the book, All the Presidents’ Children, and offered to pass on his rather colorful notes.  I declined.

In fact, public and media attacks on presidential families started with George Washington, whose stepson was reviled for his business practices and was accused of cheating his own famous stepfather in a cattle deal.  The young man died in his twenties.

John Quincy Adams had a son who sired a child out of wedlock.  Dreading the public airing of his story, he died in what most historians believe to be a suicide.  His little brother was expelled from Harvard.  He died an alcoholic in his twenties.

Robert Todd Lincoln received unmerciful press criticism for avoiding service in the Civil War.  But First Lady, Mary Lincoln, had lost son Eddie in Illinois and son Willie in the White House.  Her sobs prevailed with her husband and son.  Toward the end of the war young Lincoln was assigned to General Grant’s personal staff with implicit orders to keep the boy safe.  Mary would lose her husband instead and her beloved, Robert Todd would have her committed to an insane asylum.

Andrew Johnson, Jr. caused a ruckus when it was learned that he was sneaking prostitutes into the White House.  It couldn’t have come at a worse time.  His father was the target of impeachment.   The Johnson son died in an apparent suicide a few months after the family left the White House.

In more modern times, the media has been just as relentless and the children just as colorful.  Alice Roosevelt was the target of pulpits and newspaper editorials across the country.  They were outraged to see a woman smoking in public and considered it shamelessly erotic and offensive.  When she got behind the steering wheel of a new fangled automobile and took an un-chaperoned marathon drive from Washington to New York City it prompted both outrage and cheers.

 All of Franklin Roosevelt’s children were ripped by the media at one time or another, sometimes deservedly, sometimes not.  They were criticized for insider business deals, mafia connections and preferential treatment in the military.  And yet they were all remarkable achievers.  Anna was a super White House aide, practically running the place during the last year of FDR’s presidency and the older sons were all military heroes.

Perhaps the most stunning of all media attacks on candidates’ children took place in the early 19th century.  Andrew Jackson had seen his wife viciously attacked in the election of 1828. After winning the election, Jackson’s deeply devout and saintly wife, Rachel, went shopping in Nashville for something to wear to the inauguration.  In the city she finally found the newspapers that her husband had been keeping from her.  Journalists had pieced together the dates of her divorce and re-marriage and determined that she was technically a bigamist and adulterer.  Rachel Jackson read the newspapers and became sick.  She died a few weeks later and was buried in her inauguration dress. 

Andrew Jackson fumed at the newspapers that he believed had killed his wife.  But in his pain he built an even more powerful media weapon and it would kill even more viciously.  In 1830, a network of “Jackson newspapers” began attacking rival William Henry Harrison.  When they couldn’t find anything on the old man they turned to his son. 

It was alleged that Symmes Harrison, who ran the Vincennes, Indiana land office, had committed embezzlement and fraud.  The government fired him.  Historians differ on the young Harrison’s infraction.  My own research shows the claims of fraud to be highly unlikely.  In any case, the media storm grew so bitter and intense that young Symmes Harrison died, leaving behind six fatherless children.  Citizens of Indiana were so outraged that they wore black armbands in protest.

It was only the beginning of sorrows.  Harrison and his wife would bury three adult sons during the three consecutive years leading up to his own election to the White House.   Mrs. Harrison found no joy in the victory.  While her husband journeyed back to Washington for the inauguration, she remained behind in mourning.  Like Rachel Jackson, she would never set foot in the White House as “First Lady.”   William Henry Harrison would die after a month in office.

 The only good news is that decency has a resilience of its own.  After the death of the old president, one by one his remaining children, including his daughters, began to die off.  It was like the light had gone out of their lives, as if the media had ultimately triumphed over a family.  Within five years, nine of the ten Harrison children were gone.  But like a flower blooming in a junkyard, one son, Scott Harrison, survived.  He would serve quietly in congress and he would inculcate within his son the family lessons learned.  That son, Benjamin Harrison, the grandson of the old general, would grow to become our twenty third president.

So it has happened before, these frenzied, vicious media attacks on the children of the candidates. The jackals that howled over the prostrate body of Symmes Harrison 180 years ago are the same species that are now howling over the prone body of Bridget Palin.  They are related to the bureaucrats of former communist countries who used family members as hostages to enforce their will.  If it is no easy thing for many in the public to stomach, it is nonetheless the nature of the beast.  The impalement of Sarah Palin and her family will not be the end of it for human nature itself is at work here.  Power is at stake and money is at stake.  And where there is power and money the jackals will gather.  It is nothing personal.  It is their nature.